Forced air ionization of the air from the room

Forced air ionization of the air from the room

Additional method for the treatment of respiratory distress cystic fibrosis

Ioan Popa¹, Constantin Pascu², Zagorca Popa³, Liviu Pop¹

  1. Clinic II Paediatrics, UMF Timisoara
  2. Tehno Bionic Buzau
  3. Timisoara Cystic Fibrosis Center

The premises of the paper

  • CF respiratory distress is the main factor influencing the prognosis.
  • The establishment of a well-specified therapeutic scheme, adequate to the age and clinical condition of the patient, is for the time being the only chance to improve the prognosis of these patients.
  • Daily therapy with mucolytic substances in aerosols at home – “home therapy” – is one of the mandatory links of treatment; rH – DNA – to represent from this point of view the best option.
  • Unfortunately, in countries with low economic standards, such as Romania, accessibility to rH-DNA-sa treatment is extremely limited due to very high costs.
  • At the same time, as an adjunct in aerosol treatment, concentrated NaCl solutions and cures performed in areas rich in sodium ions (saline, sea shore) have proved beneficial.
  • Starting from the favourable effect of the NaCl treatment, Tehno Bionic Buzau, Romania imagined and built the “Salin” device for the forced air ionization of the air in the room.
  • The principle of the method: the forced passage of air between the plates with microcrystalline salt deposition, which leads to changes in the composition and quality of the air, through a phenomenon of sublimation of salt.

The purpose of the paper

The aim of the paper is the clinical confirmation of the efficiency of the therapy of patients with CF and chronic respiratory suffering, by forced air ionization of the room air.

Material and method

  • The study was performed over an interval of 6 months, on two groups of children and young people with CF from the records of the Cystic Fibrosis Center in Timisoara (fig. 1)
    • Group I: 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls), aged between 5 and 16 years (average 10.1 years), for whom air ionization was performed (living room, bedroom)
    • Group II (control): 8 patients (3 boys and 5 girls), aged between 5 and 17 years (average 10.1 years) for whom the device operated without the introduction of salt plates.
  • The device operated on average 8-10 hours / day, at a supply voltage of 9V
  • All patients continued appropriate observation during the observation.
  • Parameters taken in the study were:
    • The general clinical condition of the patient through subjective self-assessment in the case of young people, respectively the parents’ appreciation in the case of younger children
  • Clinical examination of the respiratory system
  • FEV 1 value in older children
    • The selection criteria in both groups were (Fig. 2):
      • Patients with advanced disease (3 in group I, 2 in group II) – Fig.1:
        • infection. and / or Staf.aur.
        • bronchiectasis
        • FEV 1 < 50
          • Patients with average or good clinical condition (7 from group I, 6 from group II) – Fig. 3:
            • No added respiratory infection
            • FEV 1> 50-60%

Fig.1. Vârsta pacienților

Fig. 2 Starea clinica a pacientilor


  • In group I the following were noticed:
    • Significant improvement in clinical condition;
      • The subjective sensation of “better” noticed by patients, respectively by parents, especially in those with more advanced disease;
    • Improving objective signs of disease:
      • Intensifying of the elimination of sputum in one stage, followed by a significant reduction in its amount
    • Improvement of respiratory functional syndrome
    • Reduction of auscultation rales
    • FEV 1 improvement (fig.3)
    • Since the initiation of air-ionization therapy in the room air, none of the patients has experienced recurrences of respiratory distress, so severe as to require readmission to the hospital.
  • In group II there were no changes comparable to group I (fig.4)

Fig. 3 Lot I

Fig. 4 Lot II


  • Forced air ionization by sublimation of salt is an effective method of treating respiratory distress in CF
  • The method is adjuvant, does not exclude classical therapy
  • It is a natural method of therapy, adapted to the living space, so it does not involve risks.
  • It is a relatively inexpensive method of therapy.

Nasopharyngeal lavages with saline solutions in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections

Nasopharyngeal lavages with saline solutions in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. Could these methods also help in preventing and treating COVID-19?

Nasopharyngeal lavages with saline solutions in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. Could these methods also help in preventing and treating COVID-19??

Sheetu Singh, Neeraj Sharma, Udaiveer Singh, Tejraj Singh, Daya Krishan Mangal, Virendra Singh

The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the human body either through the mouth, nose or eyes. Similar to hand washing, washing the nose and mouth can reduce viral load, transmission, intensity of symptoms, but also the duration of the disease. Reducing the viral load by gargling and nasal washing with hypertonic saline solutions, can lead to limiting the transmission of the virus to close contacts and subsequently prevent nasopharyngeal viral infections.

Japan was the second country affected by the coronavirus pandemic, after China. However, to the present day, it has a rather low infection and death rate, compared to most countries. Social distancing, protective mask and hand washing are the most important measures to stop the spread of the virus. In Japan, in addition to these measures, the gargle with warm saline solution for cleaning the throat was also included in the epidemic management guide.

The authors analysed eight studies that tested the effectiveness of gargling and nasal washes in treating and preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). One of the hypotheses of scientists is that the above techniques can also work in the prevention and care of subgroups of patients with COVID-19.


The eight controlled studies compared treatment with nasal saline / gargling / steam inhalation with at least one other treatment method or placebo. The subjects were either children, adults or healthy elderly people, or groups suffering from various acute upper respiratory tract infections (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, otitis media, tonsillitis, common cold and flu).

Limitations and adverse effects

No adverse effects were observed in subjects who performed nasal washes and gargling with hypertonic saline solutions. A limitation of these treatments was the discomfort felt by the subjects, however, 87% of people endured the procedures.

Another disadvantage would be the possible transmission of viral infection through the equipment used and the area where the procedure is performed. This limitation could be easily solved, by maintaining strict rules-each person uses his/her own equipment, and the sink in which the procedure is performed must be cleaned afterwards.


Studies that tested the effectiveness of gargling and nasal washes with hypertonic saline solutions have shown that these procedures prevent symptoms, reduce transmission, reduce the need for symptomatic medication and viral load in patients with common colds.

However, the usefulness of treatment should be studied specifically in the case of SARS-CoV-2, which has significant mutations compared to coronaviruses causing the common cold or flu. But since it’s proven to work for a multitude of viruses, logically, it should work for SARS-CoV-2 as well. Alternative therapy with saline solutions should be studied as an additional, affordable way to prevent infection and reduce the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.



Saline methods in the prevention of respiratory infections

In saline methods we have included efficient and flexible complementary preventive procedures that can ensure a consistent degree of protection against respiratory transmission infections. These methods act on the respiratory system by limiting the processes of infection, reducing the processes of spread from the carriers and can also have effects of limiting the severity of symptomatic manifestations. There are methods known and medically studied, currently used in addition to the treatment of many general respiratory problems but also for additional protection against common viruses in the cold season. Data from medical and laboratory studies show their very valuable potential in the current situation as important complementary methods of prevention in COVID-19 infection.

They can be grouped into two broad categories:

  • methods with saline solutions and wet aerosols obtained from saline solutions
  • dry saline aerosol methods – various methods that use solid state salt.


  1. nasal lavages and gargle. Centralized evaluation study [1] conducted by the team from Jaipur India. Significant decrease in respiratory infections. Widespread use in Japan is a possible explanation for the low incidence of COVID in Japan.
  2. salt antiviral action. Scotland Study [2]. Nasal lavage and gargle as a method of treating respiratory viruses. Ongoing study on COVID patients
  3. saline nebulizer – Pulmatrix USA [3] – as a method of prevention in the transmission of respiratory viruses by reducing by over 90% the potentially virus-carrying aerosols. In evaluation as a possible method to control the spread of COVID infection in risk groups.
  4. Study Canada – South Korea showing that textures covered with salt crystals retain viruses in the air and salt destroys retained viruses very quickly


Complementary treatments made with dry saline aerosols are made in: salines, salt chambers, with mechanical dry aerosol generators and with devices that use Saline technological processes.

Salt chambers and mechanical inhalers use high concentrations of dry aerosols – 10-40 mg / m3 – and the exposure is for a short period of time –  45-60 min [6].

Saline systems use saline aerosol concentrations over 200-1000 times lower – 0.03-0.04 mg / m3 – and the exposure is long lasting 8-10 hours until permanent without contraindications. [7]

  • salt chambers cannot be used during this period or are difficult to use due to social restrictions
  • mechanically generated inhalers – Russia antiviral study [8] – short daily exposures, 10 min, with individual inhalation of aerosols produced by a mechanical generator. The test group incidence of up to 6 times lower respiratory viruses
  • Salin devices have the effect noted including by direct follow-up in ICU of significant increase in the elimination of respiratory secretions [9]. In the study groups, the reduction of seasonal respiratory infections was directly reported. Individual users have reported in many cases this major reduction effect of respiratory infections.

Saline systems have a very valuable potential for use as an effective prevention system in a convenient and integrated way:

  • ambient with Artisanal Saline Devices and environmental devices or filters included in filter-ventilation systems. It would provide an additional safety net for everyone in the area.
  • INSALIN as a permanent individual device at hand with periodic use during exposure periods.
  • SaltMed as an intensive dry aerosol system for all people at risk. Preventive use in people with respiratory disorders sensitizing to seasonal viral infections as an additional protective measure against COVID.


[1] Nasopharyngeal wash in preventing and treating upper respiratory tract infections: Could it prevent COVID‐19?
  • Sheetu Singh1, Neeraj Sharma2, Udaiveer Singh3, Tejraj Singh3, Daya Krishan Mangal2, Virendra Singh4
  • Lung India • Volume 37 • Issue 3 • May-June 2020 [Downloaded free from on Sunday, August 2, 2020]
[2] Antiviral innate immune response in non-myeloid cells is augmented by chloride ions via an increase in intracellular hypochlorous acid levels
  • Sandeep Ramalingam 1,2, Baiyi Cai2, Junsheng Wong2, Matthew Twomey2, Rui Chen2, Rebecca M. Fu2, Toby Boote2, Hugh McCaughan1, Samantha J. Griffiths 2 & Jürgen G. Haas1,2
    1Department of Laboratory Medicine, NHS Lothian, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, UK. 2Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Samantha J. Griffiths and Jürgen G. Haas contributed equally.
  • SCIENTIFIC REPORTS|(2018) 8:13630 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-31936-y
[3] Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols
  • David A. Edwards*, Jonathan C. Man‡, Peter Brand, Jeffrey P. Katstra‡, K. Sommerer§, Howard A. Stone*, Edward Nardell¶, and Gerhard Scheuch
  • Harvard University, 322 Pierce Hall, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138; ‡Pulmatrix Incorporated, 840 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA 02139; Inamed, Wohraer Strasse 37, 35285 Gemuenden Wohra, Germany; and Harvard Medical School, 641 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115
  • 7384
[4] Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection
  • Fu-Shi Quan1,*, Ilaria Rubino2,*, Su-Hwa Lee3, Brendan Koch2 & Hyo-Jick Choi2
  • Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, 130-701, Korea. 2Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada. 3Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 130-701, Korea. *
  • SCIENTIFIC REPORTS | 7:39956 | DOI: 10.1038/srep39956
[6.] Salt caves as simulation of natural environment and significance of halotherapy
  1. Joanna Zając1, Iwona Bojar2, Jadwiga Helbin1, Emilia Kolarzyk1, Alfred Owoc3
  2. Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Krakow, Poland
  3. Department for Health Problems of Ageing, Institute of Rural Health in Lublin, Poland Lubuski College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland
  4. Lubuski College of Public Health, Zielona Góra, Poland
  5. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 2014, Vol 21, No 1, 124–127
[7] Inhaled dry salt micro particles in the treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a five case series report
  • 1 “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest Romania 2 ”Marie Curie“ Emergency Hospital for Children, Bucharest, Romania
    SIGNA VITAE 2017; 13(2): 85-89
[8] Dry sodium chloride aerosol against acute respiratory infections
  • Alina Chervinskaya
  • St.Petersburg, Russian Federation
  • Poster was presented at the European Respiratory Society (ERS) Annual Congress on 14.09.2009 in Session 206: “Treatment modalities in chest physiotherapy”.
  • Autori: Dr. Bogdan Oprita *, Dr. Cristian Pandrea*, Dr. Violeta Nedelcu**, Dr. Bogdan Aiganatoaie***
  • Emergency Hospital 8 Calea Floreasca 5tr., Bucharest, Romania
  • Therapeutics, Pharmacology and Clinical Toxicology, Vol XIV, Number 3, September 2010 Number 3, pages 201-204


Halotherapy with SaltMed® - clinical study


Halotherapy (Greek halos = salt) involves the use of aerosols with salt microparticles (sodium chloride) and some versions and other minerals in the treatment of respiratory diseases. It appeared as a variant of speleotherapy (Greek. Speleos = cave), the therapeutic method applied in Eastern Europe, in salines, from the beginning of the 19th century. (5)

In the 1980’s, “halo-chambers” were projected and used in the Soviet Union to reproduce the microclimate in salines, a method that later spread to Europe and North America, especially in the treatment of bronchial asthma. (5)

Subsequently, the specialists focused on imagining “portable” devices that can be used both before the hospital (ambulances) and in hospital and at home. Thus, in Hungary a “ceramic pipe” was projected which contained saline microparticles and through which inhalation occurred, the expiration being done through the nose.

In Romania, the company TehnoBionic projected a filter cartridge with saline microparticles that are forcedly nebulized under air or oxygen pressure (not humidified!) by connecting to a common oxygen face mask. (4)


Fine micronized sodium chloride (1-5 µm) is easily aspirated into the upper and lower airways. At this level it dissolves in the soil phase of the mucus film lining the respiratory epithelium. From here, by local osmotic effect, water from the interstitial tissue is attracted by the lumen of the airways.

In this way, the inflammatory oedema decreases and the amount of mucus increases.

It becomes more fluid and is easily mobilized by the vibrating cilia of the respiratory epithelial cells, improving a number of symptoms found in acute respiratory diseases. (1), (2), (3)

Thus, the nebulization of saline microparticles in the airways is a therapeutic method to be used in respiratory diseases such as: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, etc.

The mechanism of action in infectious lung diseases appears to be decreased microbial contamination of the upper respiratory tract (especially with staphylococci) in children with respiratory allergies. The bactericidal capacity would be explained by the complex immunomodulatory effects induced by the procedure: increase in the number and activation of T lymphocytes, normalization of the number of B lymphocytes, increase in IgA levels. (4)


  1. Bronchial asthma;
  2. Bronchitis;
  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
  4. Sinusitis;
  5. Respiratory allergies;
  6. Chronic diseases of the upper airways;
  7. Pneumonia.

Although there are studies on the effects of halotherapy in other types of lung pathologies: cystic fibrosis, ARDS, ALI, etc. The effect is not fully demonstrated, although it appears to be favourable.

Material and method

The filter cartridge (SaltMed) has been used in patients with respiratory failure due to bronchopulmonary asthma (asthma and exacerbated COPD), in a range of approx. 11 months, for patients presented in the UPU-SMURD Department of the Bucharest Emergency Clinical Hospital as well as on the means of on the field intervention (first aid crews – EPA = B2 ambulances and mobile intensive care units – UTIM = C1 ambulances).

Until 01.03.2009, 224 patients benefited from this treatment, simultaneously with the classic medication: betamimetics inhaler, corticotherapy, methylxanthines, etc.

A second group of 196 patients (especially pre-hospital) benefited from classic drug treatment and non-invasive facial mask oxygen therapy.

The clinical monitoring parameters were followed: ventricular rate (AV), respiratory rate (FR), EKG and SpO2 (at presentation, every 20 minutes in the first hour, then every hour until leaving the ICU). For those presented in the ICU, the parameters of acid-base balance (EAB) were also determined at presentation and at after one hour.

The results are being processed, especially since there are more patients to be included in the study.

Cases transported to other hospitals were not included in the evaluation because subsequent monitoring is extremely difficult, so only the results of the first hour of monitoring were presented as preliminary data.

Stage results:

  1. The „SaltMed” Group:

The 204 patients remained under evaluation and the rest could not be monitored  because they were either transported by the EPA to hospitals or by UTIMs who arrived at hospitals before the first 20 minutes of monitoring were completed.

FR Presentation 20 min. 40 min. 60 min.
18-24 125 61 12 3
25-30 56 48 19 11
>30 23 21 16 3


SpO2 Presentation 20 min. 40 min. 60 min.
>92% 47 98 154 190
86-92% 128 82 31 10
<86% 29 24 19 4

Thus, it is observed that after 20 min. respiratory distress begins to be reduced by almost half (evidenced by high FR and low SpO2), and after 60 min. practically only 6.86% of patients still had respiratory failure.

  1. The „Oxygen therapy” Group:

It counted 196 of which 189 patients received non-invasive facial mask oxygen therapy and 7 patients required orotracheal intubation (IOT) for ventilatory assistance and were not included in this assessment:

FR Presentation 20 min. 40 min. 60 min.
18-24 122 116 102 79
25-30 47 46 38 31
>30 20 20 16 11


SpO2 Presentation 20 min. 40 min. 60 min.
>92% 116 121 127 147
86-92% 51 46 44 31
<86% 22 22 18 11

The data show that after the first 20 min. there was no significant improvement in respiratory distress and at one time 22.22% still had severe respiratory failure.


  1. As adjunctive therapy, patients who received treatment with the saline filter cartridge had a significant improvement in respiratory distress after the first 20 min. of administration, noting that however, cases of severe respiratory failure have significantly improved after one hour.
  2. The group that received halotherapy did not require IOT to facilitate mechanical ventilation during the first hour after treatment, so it may be an option in the non-invasive management of these patients.
  3. The filter cartridge can be reused by the same patient several times, if it is kept in the original packaging (silica gel removes moisture from the cartridge) and the treatment can be repeated in the ward; can be an adjuvant at home in the early treatment of asthma attacks.
  4. In the pre-hospital, although we do not have enough data, we believe that it can be of real use in the treatment of asthma attacks by crews who do not have the competence to practice IOT for mechanical ventilation, thus being able to transport the patient to the hospital.


  • ANDERSON SD. , SPRING J., MOORE B. et al., The effect of inhaling a dry powder of sodium chloride on the airways of asthmatic subjects, eur. Respir. J. 1997 Nov; 10 (11): 2465-73
  • LAUBE BL., SWIFT DL., WAGNER HN. JR. et al.., the effect of bronchial obstruction on central airway deposition of a saline aerosol în patients with asthma, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1986 May, 133 (5): 740-3.
  • PHIPPS PR., GONDA I., ANDERSON SD. and colab., Regional deposition of saline aerosols of different tonicities in normal and asthmatic subjects, Eur. Respir. J. 1994, Aug.; 7(8): 1474-82;
  • TUDORACHE, SF. MIHĂICUŢĂ, RODICA POTRE, ANCA KIGYOSI; Aeroionizarea forţată a aerului din încăpere ca şi terapie adjuvantă în terapia astmului şi bronşitei cronice (; 03.03.2009)
  • HALOTHERAPY – adjuvant therapy în the treatment of respiratory disorders; www.; 31.03.2009

Inhalation of saline solutions reduces exhaled bioaerosols

Inhalation of saline solutions reduces exhaled bioaerosols

David A. Edwards, Jonathan C. Man, Peter Brand, Jeffrey P. Katstra, K. Sommerer, Howard A. Stone, Edward Nardell, Gerhard Scheuch

People exhale aerosols composed of small droplets of fluid that cover the airways during normal breathing. These exhaled bioaerosols can carry pathogens into the air and thus amplify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis and severe acute respiratory syndrome.

The authors hypothesize that by altering the surface properties of the pulmonary airways with an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, the number of expired bioaerosol droplets could be substantially reduced and this would be a simple way to mitigate the spread of infectious diseases by air.


11 healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 65 years with normal lung function were selected for participation in this study. Exclusion criteria included a history or evidence of lung disease (e.g., cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or severe asthma), a history or evidence of cardiovascular disease, or acute / chronic upper or lower respiratory tract infections, pregnancy, or breastfeeding . Each subject performed three clinical visits during the study to measure particle exhalation. During their first visit, subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group and received an aerosol with either a saline solution or a DPPC / POPG surfactant. After at least a week, the subjects made their second visit. Particle exhalation was measured immediately before and 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 6 hours after inhalation. During the third visit, at least one month after the last treatment, the expiration of the particles was assessed in the absence of treatment. During dosing, each subject received saline aerosol or surfactant from a PARI LC Plus Jet nebulizer (PARI, Starnberg, Germany) connected to a compressed air source at 18 psi (1 psi = 6.89 kPa) (1.24 bar).


At the end of the study, it was established that some human subjects exhale more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during breathing. The first exhale on average more than 500 particles per liter in a 6-hour interval, and the others, less than 500. Of the group of 11 volunteers, six belong to the first category and five to the second.

Another conclusion of the research was that the administration of nebulized isotonic saline in these ”large producers ” individuals reduces the number of expired bioaerosol particles by 72.10 ± 8.19% for up to 6 hours after inhalation.

The authors recommend that the effects of saline solutions to modify the properties of the surface of the pulmonary airways, respectively on the transmission of airborne pathogens, be explored further.


About treating respiratory diseases with Dr. Catalin Carstoveanu

About treating respiratory diseases with Dr. Catalin Carstoveanu

Original article on

Catalin Carstoveanu, primary neonatologist at the “Maria Sklodowska Curie” Children’s Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, in an interview in which he talks about the use of the SaltMed saline inhaler (the only inhaler with constant emission of dry salt particles) in the hospital.

In the hospital, what is the most important condition, in the treatment of which you use SaltMed therapy?

Personally, I was involved in treating three types of patients. One and the most important, with obviously positive results – chronic lung disease in new-borns and infants.

A few words about this disease: it is a chronic lung disease, which is a very disabling one, whose main trigger is mechanical ventilation but which also has other triggers: oxygen administration, atelectrauma, infections, etc.

Mechanical ventilation must be conducted in a certain way, usually volutrauma and barotrauma are serious elements in the progression and triggering of the disease, but with all these preventive measures, chronic pulmonary disease is present.

We have many patients suffering from this disease, some of whom we simply cannot sometimes disconnect from mechanical ventilators due to the severity of chronic lung disease, which means long-term pulmonary ventilation. We have a former premature baby hospitalized with multiple diseases but also with chronic lung disease, which after 8 months we managed to disconnect from the ventilation devices, using SaltMed therapy.

We also have another premature baby with very low birth weight, with chronic lung disease, who was mechanically ventilated very gently, who received a very small oxygen fraction during mechanical ventilation, but who had a severe maternal-foetal infection and who now has a severe chronic illness. From the first minutes of the SaltMed administration, we managed to obtain a Tidal Expiratory Volume 20% higher and a saturation 2-3% higher at the same mechanical ventilation parameters.